A lathe machine is used for giving desired shape and size to the metals by performing operations like drilling, cutting, knurling and many more. These operations help us in using the metals according to our requirements. Now the important point of discussion is regarding chucks, chucks are used to hold the objects with safety. Without the presence of chucks, the object would fall or the required operation cannot be performed properly. Chucks contain jaws, it can contain 2 jaws, 3 jaws, 4 jaws and even 6 jaws. The four jaw independent chuck is the one which is mostly used as it handles almost any object and is very cost effective. There are several types of chucks like independent, dog chuck, self-centering and many more. These are the main types of chucks mostly used. Other types of chucks include screw chuck, jam chuck, cup chuck and vacuum chucks etc.
Chucks consist of jaws required for holding objects, in independent chucks each jaw can be moved independently. Mostly the term four-jaw chuck is used as a chuck has four independent jaws. As they can move independently they have a wide variety of application they are used for providing a grip or hold. They are easily controllable because of the non-self-centering action. Any area which requires grip with accuracy can use independent chucks. One drawback of independent chucks is speed. It takes time as compared to the other two chucks.
These types of chucks can be used with four jaws as well as three jaws. As the name suggests self-centering are the ones which move with holding faces having equal distances from each other they provide convenience for the work which requires changeovers at certain intervals of time. They are also called scroll chucks. They employ the use of a round bar stock. The design of the head provides self-centering action. They also have a disadvantage of poor gripping on oval work-pieces. While working with these chucks proper care of jaws should be taken as they can get damaged during the process.
As we know that chucks are used to hold an object and provide grip but these chucks are not normally used. They come into use when heavy components are used as they have a very strong grip. They also have four jaws and provide more grip as compared to independent chucks. There are four screws in which each of them can be used independently.
These are the most common types of chucks used in industries.